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|The International Jewish Cook Book|
1600 Recipes According to the Jewish Dietary Laws with the Rules for Kashering; The Favorite Recipes of America, Austria, Germany, Russia, France, Poland, Roumania, Etc., Etc.
Author: Florence Kreisler Greenbaum
A Project Gutenberg eBook
Home-made bread is very much more palatable and more nutritious than
baker's bread and it is worth while to spend time and effort in its
To make good bread, it is necessary to have good flour, fresh yeast and
the liquid used in moistening must be neither too hot nor too cold or
the bread will not rise properly.
The housekeeper should know about the different kinds of flour. We get
the bread flour from the spring wheat; the pastry flour from the winter
Bread flour contains more gluten than pastry flour and is used for bread
on that account. Pastry flour having less gluten and slightly more
starch is more suitable for pastry and cake mixtures and is used
wherever softness and lightness are desired.
Graham flour is the whole kernel of wheat ground.
Entire wheat flour is the flour resulting from the grinding of all but
the outer layer of the wheat.
Rye flour is next best to wheat flour for bread making, but is generally
combined with wheal flour, since by itself it makes a sticky bread.
Cornmeal is also combined with wheat flour.
Variety bread is composed of bread flour, rye flour and cornmeal
combined in one loaf.
If flour is musty; it is not kosher and must be destroyed. Keep flour
either in tins or barrels in a dry atmosphere.
In cities where fresh compressed yeast can be obtained, it is not worth
while to prepare one's own.
Compressed yeast is always in proper condition to use until it becomes
soft, often the yeast cakes are slightly discolored, but this does not
affect the yeast, being caused by the oxidation of the starch in the
Keep yeast in cool place.
HOME MADE YEAST
Grate six large raw potatoes, have ready a gallon of water in which you
have boiled one and one-half cups of hops. Strain through a fine hair
sieve, boiling hot, over the potatoes, stirring well, or the mixture
will thicken like starch. Add a scant cup of sugar and one-half cup of
salt. When cold, add a yeast cake or a cup of fresh yeast. Let it stand
until a thick foam rises on the top. Bottle in a few days. If kept in a
cool place, this yeast will last a long time. Use one cup of yeast for
one large baking. In making yeast, from time to time, use a cup of the
same with which to start the new yeast.
One cup of liquid yeast is equal to one cake of compressed yeast.
When yeast is not obtainable to start the fermentation in making yeast,
mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a warm place
until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only half the strength of
yeast so double the amount must be used.
TO MAKE BREAD
Try the yeast always by setting to raise in a cup of lukewarm water or
milk, if you use compressed yeast add salt and sugar.
If it rises in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, the yeast is fit to
use. In making bread always use sifted flour. Set a sponge with lukewarm
milk or water, keeping it covered in a warm place until very light, then
mold this sponge by adding flour, until very light into one large ball,
then knead well and steadily for twenty minutes. Set to rise again in a
warm place free from drafts, and when it has risen to double its former
bulk, take a knife, cut through the dough in several places, then place
this dough on a baking board which has been sprinkled with flour. Work
with the palm of the hand, always kneading towards the centre of the
ball (the dough must rebound like a rubber ball). When this leaves the
board and the hands perfectly clean the dough may be formed into loaves
Place in pan, greased slightly with a good oil, let rise until the
imprint of the finger does not remain, and bake.
The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a teaspoon of
flour in five minutes.
If baked in a coal range, the fire must be just the proper heat so as
not to have to add fuel or shake the stove.
If baked in a gas range, light oven to full heat five minutes before
putting the bread in the oven, and bake in a moderately hot oven
forty-five minutes, unless the loaves are very large when one hour will
be the proper time.
When taken from the oven, the bread may be wrapped in a clean towel
wrung out of warm water (this prevents the crust from becoming hard);
place bread in slanting position or allow it to cool on a wire rack.
Set the dough at night and bake early in the morning; take one-half cake
of compressed yeast, set in a cup of lukewarm milk or water adding a
teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar. Let this rise, if it does
not, the yeast is not fresh or good. Measure eight cups of sifted flour
into a deep bread bowl, add one teaspoon of salt; make a depression in
the centre, pour in the risen yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk or
water. In winter be sure that the bowl, flour, milk, in fact everything
has been thoroughly warmed before mixing. Mix the dough slowly with a
wooden spoon and then knead as directed.
This amount will make two loaves, either twisted or in small bread pans.
Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.
If the bread is set in the morning use a cake of compressed yeast and
bake the loaves in the afternoon.
Make dough according to the above recipe. Work small pieces of dough
into strands a finger long, and take three strands for each loaf. Make
small as possible, brush with beaten egg; or sweetened water and
sprinkle with poppy seed (mohn). Allow them to rise before setting them
in the oven. These are called "Vienna loaves" and are used at weddings,
parties and for the Succoth festival in the Succah.
If one-half cake of yeast has been used, the half cake of yeast which is
left over, can be kept in good condition several days by rewrapping it
in the tinfoil and keeping it in a cool, dry place.
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk,
add a teaspoon of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar and let it rise. Then
make a soft dough of eight cups of sifted flour and as much milk as is
required to work it, about two cups; add the yeast, one-half cup of
sugar, four tablespoons of butter dissolved in the warm milk, the grated
peel of a lemon, two or three dozen raisins seeded, and two eggs well
beaten. Work this dough perfectly smooth with the palm of your hand,
adding more flour if necessary. It is hardly possible to tell the exact
amount of flour to use; experience will teach you when you have added
enough. Different brands of flour vary, some being drier than others.
Work the dough as directed, set it aside covered until it is double the
bulk of the original piece of dough. Then work again and divide the
dough into two parts, and divide each of the pieces of dough into three
parts. Work the six pieces of dough thoroughly and then roll each piece
into a long strand; three of which are to be longer than the other
three. Braid the three long strands into one braid (should be thicker in
the centre than at the end), and braid the shorter strands into one
braid and lay it on, top of the long braid, pressing the ends together.
Butter a long baking-pan, lift the barches into the pan and set in a
warm place to rise again for about one-half hour. Then brush the top
with beaten egg and sprinkle poppy seed all over the top. Bake in a
moderate oven one hour.
These are to be used for a meat meal and are made in the same manner as
butter barches, omitting the milk and butter; use water and a little
shortening of dripping or rendered fat or a vegetable oil; grate a dozen
almonds (blanched) and add with two well-beaten eggs, one-half cup of
sugar, salt, raisins and the grated peel of one lemon. Work just as you
would butter barches. Bake one hour in moderate oven. Wrap in a damp,
clean towel as soon as baked to prevent the crust from becoming too
Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to any of the foregoing
recipes. This will give a more moist bread, which retains its freshness
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and four tablespoons of light
brown sugar or molasses in one cup of lukewarm water and one cup of milk
which has been scalded and cooled to lukewarm. Add two tablespoons of
melted butter, then four cups of Graham flour and one cup of white flour
(sifted), adding flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead
thoroughly, being sure to keep dough soft. Cover and set aside in a warm
place to rise for about two hours. When double in bulk, turn out on
kneading board, mold into loaves, and place in well-greased pans, cover
and set to rise again--about one hour or until light. Bake one hour, in
a slower oven than for white bread. If wanted for overnight use one-half
cake of yeast and an extra half teaspoon of salt.
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one tablespoon of sugar in one
cup of milk, scalded and cooled, and one cup of lukewarm water; add one
level tablespoon of butter then three cups of gluten flour gradually,
and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly until smooth and elastic;
place in well-greased bowl; cover and set aside in a warm place, free
from draught, to rise until light, which should be in about two hours.
Mold into loaves; place in greased pans, filling them half full. Cover,
let rise again, and when double in bulk, which should be in about one
hour, bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes.
This will make two one-pound loaves. For diet use omit shortening and
Make dough as directed for Butterbarches, using one-quarter cup of
raisins and omitting the lemon and egg. Form in loaves, fill
well-greased pans half full; cover and let rise until light; about one
hour. Glaze with egg diluted with water, and bake forty-five minutes.
ROLLED OATS BREAD
Pour two cups of boiling water over two cups of rolled oats, cover and
let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and
one-fourth cup of brown sugar in one-half cup of lukewarm water, add two
tablespoons of shortening, the oatmeal and the water in which it has
been swelling. Beat well, add about three cups of flour to make a dough,
also add one teaspoon of salt. Let rise until it doubles in bulk. Mold
into two loaves in pan and bake forty-five minutes.
Cook one quart of potatoes diced, in boiling water until tender. Strain,
reserving potato water. Measure and add enough more water to make three
cups. Let come to a boil, add one-quarter cup of salt, and very
gradually one and one-quarter cups of cornmeal. Cook two minutes,
stirring constantly until thick. Remove from fire, add two tablespoons
of any kind of fat, the potatoes riced or mashed and when cooled two
cups of flour; then one tablespoon of sugar and one cake of yeast
dissolved in one cup of lukewarm water. Mix and knead to a stiff dough
adding wheat flour to keep it from sticking. Cover, set aside in a warm
place overnight, or until double its bulk. Shape into four loaves, let
rise again; bake in a moderate oven one hour or more, until well done.
Glaze with egg diluted with water before putting in the oven. These
loaves will keep moist one week.
RYE BREAD (AMERICAN) No. 1
Dissolve one cake compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water and one
cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled; or if so desired the milk
may be omitted and all water used; add two and one-half cups of rye
flour or enough to make a sponge. Beat well; cover and set aside in a
warm place, free from draught, to rise about two hours. When light add
one and one-half cups of sifted white flour, one tablespoon of melted
butter or oil, two and one-half cups of rye flour to make a soft dough
and last one tablespoon of salt. Turn on a board and knead or pound it
five minutes. Place in greased bowl; cover and let rise until double in
bulk--about two hours. Turn on board and shape into loaves; place in
floured shallow pans; cover and let rise again until light--about one
hour. Brush with white of egg and water, to glaze. With sharp knife cut
lightly three strokes diagonally across top, and place in oven. Bake in
slower oven than for white bread. Caraway seeds may be used if desired.
By adding one-half cup of sour dough, left from previous baking, an acid
flavor is obtained, which is considered by many a great improvement.
This should be added to the sponge.
RYE BREAD, No. 2
Sift three cups of rye flour, three cups of wheat flour and two
teaspoons of salt in a bowl. Dissolve one-half cake of compressed yeast
or any other yeast in two cups of lukewarm water. When the yeast is
dissolved pour it into the flour and make into a dough. Lay it on a
kneading board, and knead until smooth and elastic, put it back into the
bowl, cover with a towel, and set aside overnight to rise. Next morning,
lay the dough on a biscuit or kneading board again and knead well. Make
into a loaf, put into a pan, and when well risen, moisten the top with a
little cold water and bake in a moderate oven.
Take a piece of rye bread dough. After it has risen sufficiently roll
out quite thin, butter a long cake pan and put in the rolled dough.
Brush with melted butter; chop some onions very fine, strew thickly on
top of cake, sprinkle with salt, put flakes of butter here and there.
Another way is to chop up parsley and use in place of onions. Then
called "Petersilien Platz."
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water or
milk, add two teaspoons of salt, three cups of bread or wheat flour, one
cup of cornmeal, one cup of rye flour and one-half cup of dark molasses,
and mix very thoroughly. Let rise, shape into loaves, let rise again and
bake in a moderate oven for forty-five minutes.
Take bread dough, when ready to shape into loaves and make a long even
roll. Cut into small even pieces, and shape with thumb and fingers into
round balls. Set close together in a shallow pan, let rise until double
the bulk, and bake in a hot oven from ten to twenty minutes. If crusty
rolls are desired, set apart in a shallow pan, bake well, and cool in
Scald one cup of milk and when lukewarm dissolve one cake of compressed
yeast and add one and one-half cups of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover and
allow to stand until light. Add one-quarter cup of sugar, one and
one-half teaspoons of salt, two eggs, one-third cup of butter and enough
flour to knead. Allow to rise again until light. Shape into round or
small oblong finger rolls, and place in buttered pans close together,
when light bake in hot oven.
Take bread or kitchen dough, and when well risen, toss on floured baking
board, roll into a square sheet, one-quarter inch thick. Spread with
melted butter, and cut into six-inch squares, then cut each square into
two equal parts through opposite corners, thus forming two triangles.
Roll over and over from the longest side to the opposite corner and then
shape the rolls into half moons or crescents. Place in floured or
greased pans, rather far apart; brush with beaten yolk to which a little
cold water has been added and sprinkle tops of crescents or horns with
poppy seed. Set in warm place to and, when double its bulk, bake in hot
oven until brown and crusty.
Make same as tea rolls. When well risen mold into small round buns;
place in well-greased pans, one inch apart. Coyer set aside to rise
until light--about one hour. Brush with egg diluted with water; bake
twenty minutes, just before removing from the oven, brush with sugar
moistened with a little water.
RAISIN OR CURRANT BUNS
Boil two large potatoes and strain the water into a pitcher, dissolve
two-thirds cake of yeast in a cup. Put potatoes in a pan with a cup of
sugar; large lump of butter, and teaspoon of salt. The heat of potatoes
will melt the sugar and butter. Mash with large masher to a cream; pour
in rest of potato water, add pint of flour and mix together. Then cover
and set in a warm place all night. In the morning add more flour, mix
quickly and put currants or raisins in as you turn the dough. This will
keep them from settling in the bottom of the bread. Put in hot pans and
bake in a hot oven. This makes a delicious holiday bread. Eat with
butter, hot or cold.
Take pieces of raised bread dough, roll three-eighths inch thick and
four or five inches long. Place in floured pan, far apart, brush tops
with beaten yolk and poppy seed. Let rise, bake in a hot oven until
Prepare the yeast as for bread and work just the same; add one-quarter
cup of butter, one-quarter cup of sugar, one whole egg and one egg yolk
beaten very light, flavor with mace or a few gratings of lemon peel;
work until it leaves the hand perfectly clean, then form into rolls, let
raise, brush with beaten egg, place rolls in pan close together and
Slice even slices of baker's bread, not too thin, put in biscuit pan on
the top rack of a very hot oven, brown nicely on one side, then turn and
brown on the other, spread with butter, and a little powdered sugar, if
desired, and serve at once. Or put the slices on a long fork, hold
before a red coal fire, without flame, toast on both sides and proceed
MILK OR CREAM TOAST
Toast as many slices of stale light bread as desired a light brown. Heat
milk or cream, allowing one-half cup for each slice, add small lump of
butter. When just at the boiling point, pour over bread which has been
placed in dish, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, cover, and serve
immediately. Nice for invalids.
CINNAMON TOAST FOR TEA
Bread cut thin and browned, but not dried.
Butter the toast while very hot, thinly and evenly, and sprinkle over
each piece some powdered cinnamon and sugar.
Beat two eggs slightly, add one-half teaspoon of salt and two-thirds cup
of milk; dip six slices of stale bread in the mixture. Have a griddle
hot and well buttered; brown the bread on each side. Serve hot with
cinnamon and sugar or a sauce.