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The International Jewish Cook Book

The International Jewish Cook Book

1600 Recipes According to the Jewish Dietary Laws with the Rules for Kashering; The Favorite Recipes of America, Austria, Germany, Russia, France, Poland, Roumania, Etc., Etc.

Author: Florence Kreisler Greenbaum

A Project Gutenberg eBook




Home-made bread is very much more palatable and more nutritious than

baker's bread and it is worth while to spend time and effort in its



To make good bread, it is necessary to have good flour, fresh yeast and

the liquid used in moistening must be neither too hot nor too cold or

the bread will not rise properly.





The housekeeper should know about the different kinds of flour. We get

the bread flour from the spring wheat; the pastry flour from the winter



Bread flour contains more gluten than pastry flour and is used for bread

on that account. Pastry flour having less gluten and slightly more

starch is more suitable for pastry and cake mixtures and is used

wherever softness and lightness are desired.


Graham flour is the whole kernel of wheat ground.


Entire wheat flour is the flour resulting from the grinding of all but

the outer layer of the wheat.


Rye flour is next best to wheat flour for bread making, but is generally

combined with wheal flour, since by itself it makes a sticky bread.


Cornmeal is also combined with wheat flour.


Variety bread is composed of bread flour, rye flour and cornmeal

combined in one loaf.


If flour is musty; it is not kosher and must be destroyed. Keep flour

either in tins or barrels in a dry atmosphere.





In cities where fresh compressed yeast can be obtained, it is not worth

while to prepare one's own.


Compressed yeast is always in proper condition to use until it becomes

soft, often the yeast cakes are slightly discolored, but this does not

affect the yeast, being caused by the oxidation of the starch in the



Keep yeast in cool place.





Grate six large raw potatoes, have ready a gallon of water in which you

have boiled one and one-half cups of hops. Strain through a fine hair

sieve, boiling hot, over the potatoes, stirring well, or the mixture

will thicken like starch. Add a scant cup of sugar and one-half cup of

salt. When cold, add a yeast cake or a cup of fresh yeast. Let it stand

until a thick foam rises on the top. Bottle in a few days. If kept in a

cool place, this yeast will last a long time. Use one cup of yeast for

one large baking. In making yeast, from time to time, use a cup of the

same with which to start the new yeast.


One cup of liquid yeast is equal to one cake of compressed yeast.


When yeast is not obtainable to start the fermentation in making yeast,

mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a warm place

until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only half the strength of

yeast so double the amount must be used.





Try the yeast always by setting to raise in a cup of lukewarm water or

milk, if you use compressed yeast add salt and sugar.


If it rises in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, the yeast is fit to

use. In making bread always use sifted flour. Set a sponge with lukewarm

milk or water, keeping it covered in a warm place until very light, then

mold this sponge by adding flour, until very light into one large ball,

then knead well and steadily for twenty minutes. Set to rise again in a

warm place free from drafts, and when it has risen to double its former

bulk, take a knife, cut through the dough in several places, then place

this dough on a baking board which has been sprinkled with flour. Work

with the palm of the hand, always kneading towards the centre of the

ball (the dough must rebound like a rubber ball). When this leaves the

board and the hands perfectly clean the dough may be formed into loaves

or rolls.


Place in pan, greased slightly with a good oil, let rise until the

imprint of the finger does not remain, and bake.


The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a teaspoon of

flour in five minutes.


If baked in a coal range, the fire must be just the proper heat so as

not to have to add fuel or shake the stove.


If baked in a gas range, light oven to full heat five minutes before

putting the bread in the oven, and bake in a moderately hot oven

forty-five minutes, unless the loaves are very large when one hour will

be the proper time.


When taken from the oven, the bread may be wrapped in a clean towel

wrung out of warm water (this prevents the crust from becoming hard);

place bread in slanting position or allow it to cool on a wire rack.





Set the dough at night and bake early in the morning; take one-half cake

of compressed yeast, set in a cup of lukewarm milk or water adding a

teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar. Let this rise, if it does

not, the yeast is not fresh or good. Measure eight cups of sifted flour

into a deep bread bowl, add one teaspoon of salt; make a depression in

the centre, pour in the risen yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk or

water. In winter be sure that the bowl, flour, milk, in fact everything

has been thoroughly warmed before mixing. Mix the dough slowly with a

wooden spoon and then knead as directed.


This amount will make two loaves, either twisted or in small bread pans.

Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.


If the bread is set in the morning use a cake of compressed yeast and

bake the loaves in the afternoon.





Make dough according to the above recipe. Work small pieces of dough

into strands a finger long, and take three strands for each loaf. Make

small as possible, brush with beaten egg; or sweetened water and

sprinkle with poppy seed (mohn). Allow them to rise before setting them

in the oven. These are called "Vienna loaves" and are used at weddings,

parties and for the Succoth festival in the Succah.


If one-half cake of yeast has been used, the half cake of yeast which is

left over, can be kept in good condition several days by rewrapping it

in the tinfoil and keeping it in a cool, dry place.





Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk,

add a teaspoon of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar and let it rise. Then

make a soft dough of eight cups of sifted flour and as much milk as is

required to work it, about two cups; add the yeast, one-half cup of

sugar, four tablespoons of butter dissolved in the warm milk, the grated

peel of a lemon, two or three dozen raisins seeded, and two eggs well

beaten. Work this dough perfectly smooth with the palm of your hand,

adding more flour if necessary. It is hardly possible to tell the exact

amount of flour to use; experience will teach you when you have added

enough. Different brands of flour vary, some being drier than others.

Work the dough as directed, set it aside covered until it is double the

bulk of the original piece of dough. Then work again and divide the

dough into two parts, and divide each of the pieces of dough into three

parts. Work the six pieces of dough thoroughly and then roll each piece

into a long strand; three of which are to be longer than the other

three. Braid the three long strands into one braid (should be thicker in

the centre than at the end), and braid the shorter strands into one

braid and lay it on, top of the long braid, pressing the ends together.

Butter a long baking-pan, lift the barches into the pan and set in a

warm place to rise again for about one-half hour. Then brush the top

with beaten egg and sprinkle poppy seed all over the top. Bake in a

moderate oven one hour.





These are to be used for a meat meal and are made in the same manner as

butter barches, omitting the milk and butter; use water and a little

shortening of dripping or rendered fat or a vegetable oil; grate a dozen

almonds (blanched) and add with two well-beaten eggs, one-half cup of

sugar, salt, raisins and the grated peel of one lemon. Work just as you

would butter barches. Bake one hour in moderate oven. Wrap in a damp,

clean towel as soon as baked to prevent the crust from becoming too






Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to any of the foregoing

recipes. This will give a more moist bread, which retains its freshness






Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and four tablespoons of light

brown sugar or molasses in one cup of lukewarm water and one cup of milk

which has been scalded and cooled to lukewarm. Add two tablespoons of

melted butter, then four cups of Graham flour and one cup of white flour

(sifted), adding flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead

thoroughly, being sure to keep dough soft. Cover and set aside in a warm

place to rise for about two hours. When double in bulk, turn out on

kneading board, mold into loaves, and place in well-greased pans, cover

and set to rise again--about one hour or until light. Bake one hour, in

a slower oven than for white bread. If wanted for overnight use one-half

cake of yeast and an extra half teaspoon of salt.





Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one tablespoon of sugar in one

cup of milk, scalded and cooled, and one cup of lukewarm water; add one

level tablespoon of butter then three cups of gluten flour gradually,

and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly until smooth and elastic;

place in well-greased bowl; cover and set aside in a warm place, free

from draught, to rise until light, which should be in about two hours.

Mold into loaves; place in greased pans, filling them half full. Cover,

let rise again, and when double in bulk, which should be in about one

hour, bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes.


This will make two one-pound loaves. For diet use omit shortening and






Make dough as directed for Butterbarches, using one-quarter cup of

raisins and omitting the lemon and egg. Form in loaves, fill

well-greased pans half full; cover and let rise until light; about one

hour. Glaze with egg diluted with water, and bake forty-five minutes.





Pour two cups of boiling water over two cups of rolled oats, cover and

let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and

one-fourth cup of brown sugar in one-half cup of lukewarm water, add two

tablespoons of shortening, the oatmeal and the water in which it has

been swelling. Beat well, add about three cups of flour to make a dough,

also add one teaspoon of salt. Let rise until it doubles in bulk. Mold

into two loaves in pan and bake forty-five minutes.





Cook one quart of potatoes diced, in boiling water until tender. Strain,

reserving potato water. Measure and add enough more water to make three

cups. Let come to a boil, add one-quarter cup of salt, and very

gradually one and one-quarter cups of cornmeal. Cook two minutes,

stirring constantly until thick. Remove from fire, add two tablespoons

of any kind of fat, the potatoes riced or mashed and when cooled two

cups of flour; then one tablespoon of sugar and one cake of yeast

dissolved in one cup of lukewarm water. Mix and knead to a stiff dough

adding wheat flour to keep it from sticking. Cover, set aside in a warm

place overnight, or until double its bulk. Shape into four loaves, let

rise again; bake in a moderate oven one hour or more, until well done.

Glaze with egg diluted with water before putting in the oven. These

loaves will keep moist one week.





Dissolve one cake compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water and one

cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled; or if so desired the milk

may be omitted and all water used; add two and one-half cups of rye

flour or enough to make a sponge. Beat well; cover and set aside in a

warm place, free from draught, to rise about two hours. When light add

one and one-half cups of sifted white flour, one tablespoon of melted

butter or oil, two and one-half cups of rye flour to make a soft dough

and last one tablespoon of salt. Turn on a board and knead or pound it

five minutes. Place in greased bowl; cover and let rise until double in

bulk--about two hours. Turn on board and shape into loaves; place in

floured shallow pans; cover and let rise again until light--about one

hour. Brush with white of egg and water, to glaze. With sharp knife cut

lightly three strokes diagonally across top, and place in oven. Bake in

slower oven than for white bread. Caraway seeds may be used if desired.


By adding one-half cup of sour dough, left from previous baking, an acid

flavor is obtained, which is considered by many a great improvement.

This should be added to the sponge.





Sift three cups of rye flour, three cups of wheat flour and two

teaspoons of salt in a bowl. Dissolve one-half cake of compressed yeast

or any other yeast in two cups of lukewarm water. When the yeast is

dissolved pour it into the flour and make into a dough. Lay it on a

kneading board, and knead until smooth and elastic, put it back into the

bowl, cover with a towel, and set aside overnight to rise. Next morning,

lay the dough on a biscuit or kneading board again and knead well. Make

into a loaf, put into a pan, and when well risen, moisten the top with a

little cold water and bake in a moderate oven.





Take a piece of rye bread dough. After it has risen sufficiently roll

out quite thin, butter a long cake pan and put in the rolled dough.

Brush with melted butter; chop some onions very fine, strew thickly on

top of cake, sprinkle with salt, put flakes of butter here and there.

Another way is to chop up parsley and use in place of onions. Then

called "Petersilien Platz."





Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water or

milk, add two teaspoons of salt, three cups of bread or wheat flour, one

cup of cornmeal, one cup of rye flour and one-half cup of dark molasses,

and mix very thoroughly. Let rise, shape into loaves, let rise again and

bake in a moderate oven for forty-five minutes.





Take bread dough, when ready to shape into loaves and make a long even

roll. Cut into small even pieces, and shape with thumb and fingers into

round balls. Set close together in a shallow pan, let rise until double

the bulk, and bake in a hot oven from ten to twenty minutes. If crusty

rolls are desired, set apart in a shallow pan, bake well, and cool in






Scald one cup of milk and when lukewarm dissolve one cake of compressed

yeast and add one and one-half cups of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover and

allow to stand until light. Add one-quarter cup of sugar, one and

one-half teaspoons of salt, two eggs, one-third cup of butter and enough

flour to knead. Allow to rise again until light. Shape into round or

small oblong finger rolls, and place in buttered pans close together,

when light bake in hot oven.





Take bread or kitchen dough, and when well risen, toss on floured baking

board, roll into a square sheet, one-quarter inch thick. Spread with

melted butter, and cut into six-inch squares, then cut each square into

two equal parts through opposite corners, thus forming two triangles.

Roll over and over from the longest side to the opposite corner and then

shape the rolls into half moons or crescents. Place in floured or

greased pans, rather far apart; brush with beaten yolk to which a little

cold water has been added and sprinkle tops of crescents or horns with

poppy seed. Set in warm place to and, when double its bulk, bake in hot

oven until brown and crusty.





Make same as tea rolls. When well risen mold into small round buns;

place in well-greased pans, one inch apart. Coyer set aside to rise

until light--about one hour. Brush with egg diluted with water; bake

twenty minutes, just before removing from the oven, brush with sugar

moistened with a little water.





Boil two large potatoes and strain the water into a pitcher, dissolve

two-thirds cake of yeast in a cup. Put potatoes in a pan with a cup of

sugar; large lump of butter, and teaspoon of salt. The heat of potatoes

will melt the sugar and butter. Mash with large masher to a cream; pour

in rest of potato water, add pint of flour and mix together. Then cover

and set in a warm place all night. In the morning add more flour, mix

quickly and put currants or raisins in as you turn the dough. This will

keep them from settling in the bottom of the bread. Put in hot pans and

bake in a hot oven. This makes a delicious holiday bread. Eat with

butter, hot or cold.





Take pieces of raised bread dough, roll three-eighths inch thick and

four or five inches long. Place in floured pan, far apart, brush tops

with beaten yolk and poppy seed. Let rise, bake in a hot oven until






Prepare the yeast as for bread and work just the same; add one-quarter

cup of butter, one-quarter cup of sugar, one whole egg and one egg yolk

beaten very light, flavor with mace or a few gratings of lemon peel;

work until it leaves the hand perfectly clean, then form into rolls, let

raise, brush with beaten egg, place rolls in pan close together and






Slice even slices of baker's bread, not too thin, put in biscuit pan on

the top rack of a very hot oven, brown nicely on one side, then turn and

brown on the other, spread with butter, and a little powdered sugar, if

desired, and serve at once. Or put the slices on a long fork, hold

before a red coal fire, without flame, toast on both sides and proceed

as above.





Toast as many slices of stale light bread as desired a light brown. Heat

milk or cream, allowing one-half cup for each slice, add small lump of

butter. When just at the boiling point, pour over bread which has been

placed in dish, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, cover, and serve

immediately. Nice for invalids.





Bread cut thin and browned, but not dried.


Butter the toast while very hot, thinly and evenly, and sprinkle over

each piece some powdered cinnamon and sugar.





Beat two eggs slightly, add one-half teaspoon of salt and two-thirds cup

of milk; dip six slices of stale bread in the mixture. Have a griddle

hot and well buttered; brown the bread on each side. Serve hot with

cinnamon and sugar or a sauce.

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